Cancer, a very short introduction

Publish Date
Nov 25, 2021
Three scores and ten
'Three score and ten' is the nominal span of a human life. In the days that this expression was coined that span was considered to be seventy years. Threescore used to be used for sixty, in the way that we still use a dozen for twelve, and (occasionally) score for twenty. The use of threescore as a name for sixty has long since died out but is still remembered in this phrase. Threescore goes back to at least 1388, as in this from John Wyclif's Bible, Leviticus 12, at that date: "Thre scoor and sixe daies." There are numerous uses of 'threescore' in the Bible. Most of them refer to its simple meaning as the number sixty, for example: "...threescore and ten bullocks, an hundred rams, and two hundred lambs: all these were for a burnt offering to the Lord."
Most popular (prevalence) cancers worldwide (by order) : Lung, stomach, Liver, Bower, Breast
A, adenine, 腺嘌呤 --- T, thymine, 胸腺嘧啶 (RNA: U, uracil, 尿嘧啶) G, guanine, 鸟嘌呤 --- C, cytosine, 胞嘧啶 3个碱基编码(共64组组合)一个氨基酸,共20种(生物体内存在的)氨基酸 mRNA: 信使 RNA, DNA 转录而来的并运送到细胞质 transfer RNA 氨基酸(amino acids), 由3部分组成: carboxy terminus (羧基端), amino terminus (氨基端), plus a variable side branch which gives each amino acid its distinct properties (R)
The hallmarks of cancer (cancer cell features):
• self-sufficiency in positive growth signals; • lack of response to inhibitory signals; • failure to undergo ‘programmed cell death’ (Apoptosis) to eliminate faulty cells; • evasion of destruction by the immune system; • the ability to grow in and destructively invade other tissues; • ability to sustain growth by generating new blood vessels. 细胞凋亡(Apoptosis)是以细胞DNA发生特异性的降解,形态上表现为核固缩、胞膜发泡和凋亡小体形成为特征,是由特定的基因调控,无明显细胞溶解的过程。
Carcinogen: 致癌物质 castrate : (男性)去势 cervical smear test : 宫颈涂片检查。筛查子宫肿瘤(宫颈癌) promiscuity:性滥交 laparoscopic 腹腔镜(微创手术) oncologic = 肿瘤方面 oncological = 肿瘤方面 oncologist = 癌症医师 tamoxifen (諾瓦得士), oestrogen blocker (雌激素受体阻抗剂),治疗乳腺癌 Herceptin 赫赛汀,针对HER-2蛋白的靶向性治疗的单克隆抗体 HER-2 : 生长因子受体(on/off switch)。1/3 的乳腺癌细胞表面表达异常HER2(always on),称为 HER2 positive. perinatal care : 围产期医疗护理 homeopathy 顺势疗法 (alternative approach) /humipi/ 【名】ホメオパシー、同種療法、類似療法、同毒療法◆「健康な人に投与するとある症状を引き起こす薬を、その症状がでている患者に極少量、投与して治療する」という治療法。例えば、健康な人が飲むと熱を出す薬を、熱が出ている患者に極少量、投与すると治癒する(熱が引く)という現象を利用した治療法。◆【対】allopathy 【分節】ho・me・op・a・thy acupuncture 针刺疗法