The definitive, bestselling book on the origins and development of nationalism. Imagined Communities, Benedict Anderson's brilliant book on nationalism, forged a new field of study when it first appeared in 1983. Since then it has sold over a quarter of a million copies and is widely considered the most important book on the subject. In this greatly anticipated revised edition, Anderson updates and elaborates on the core question: what makes people live, die and kill in the name of nations? He shows how an originary nationalism born in the Americas was adopted by popular movements in Europe, by imperialist powers, and by the anti-imperialist resistances in Asia and Africa, and explores the way communities were created by the growth of the nation-state, the interaction between capitalism and printing, and the birth of vernacular languages-of-state. Anderson revisits these fundamental ideas, showing how their relevance has been tested by the events of the past two decades.
Chapter 3. Creole Pioneers
Nairn’s (otherwise persuasive) thesis Tom Nairn: The arrival of nationalism in a distinctively modern sense was tied to the political baptism of the lower classes 这种民族国家起源理论无法解释美洲前殖民国家（美国、巴西、etc...）的独立运动。 Peninsulares : In the context of the Spanish Empire, a peninsular was a Spaniard born in Spain residing in the New World, Spanish East Indies, or Spanish Guinea. Uti possidetis : "As you possess, so shall you possess"。佔领地保有，是国际法中的一项原则，主张除非條約另行規定，否則交戰國在戰爭結束後可以保有其在戰爭期間藉由武力所佔有的領土和財產。