Scientific Revolution, a very short intruduction

Publish Date
Nov 23, 2021
schism: 宗派分裂。通常指 1054年基督教东西教会分立。
维罗纳的瓜里诺Guarino da Verona,又作 Guarino Guarini,1370年於维罗纳-1460年12月14日於費拉拉義大利文藝復興時期人文主義者。文藝復興早期希臘古典文學研究之先驅。
方济会士(Franciscans) 道明会士(Dominicans)
Council of Trent.指天主教會於1545年至1563年間在北義大利特倫托波隆那召開的反宗教改革大公會議
Jesuits, the Society of Jesus 耶稣会;耶稣会士. 1540年建立。基督教为应对宗教改革而做出的改变。
Chapter 1.
Background of scientific revolution
  • Humanism
  • The invention of moveable-type printing (1450, Gutenberg)
  • Voyages of discovery
    • Cape of Good Hope 好望角: 1488
    • Vasco da Gama’s successful trading voyage to India in 1497–98.
    • 在哥伦布之前1500年西方(欧洲)就知道地球是圆(sphericity)的。所谓在哥伦布之前人们认为地球是平(flat)的是19世纪编造的神话。
Chapter 2
timaeus 蒂迈欧篇 ( 柏拉图)
Aristotelian: casual knowledge. To know a thing requires identifying it's fource "causes"
These ‘causes’ can be illustrated using a statue of Achilles (阿喀琉斯). The statue’s efficient cause is the sculptor, its material cause is marble, its formal cause is the beautiful body of Achilles, and its final cause is to celebrate the memory of Achilles. There can be more than one of each of the causes (for example, the statue might also have the final cause of being decorative, or perhaps, in some Attic house, to act as a coat rack).
frontispiece: 书的卷首插图。
Aristotelianism: 亚里斯多德哲学
古希腊医学认为构成人体的 four humours
  • black bile : 黑色胆汁。如果其占优势会导致抑郁 melancholy, 词源黑色胆汁希腊语词汇 melaina chole)
  • blood
  • yellow bile
  • phlegm (痰)
ecclesiastic: n. (基督教)教士,圣职人员 adj. 教会的;神职者的,牧师的
19世纪描绘的科学革命中 scientists vs religionists 的对立和斗争是现代神话。当时所有科学家都是基督教徒(priest of nature)。其科学研究的目的本身就是"通过认识自然(Book of Nature, 相对于 Book of Scripture, 圣经.)去认识上帝“.
Chapter 3 superlunar world (astronomy / astrology)
Almagestum Novum, frontispiece (《新天文学大成》) by Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, 1598-1671
第谷·布拉赫Tycho Brahe,1546年12月14日-1601年10月24日),丹麥貴族天文學家占星術士煉金術士。他最著名的助手是克卜勒。改进了托勒密(Ptolemy)的地心说
Chapter 4 the sublunar world
尼古拉斯·斯坦诺(拉丁语:Nicolaus Steno,1638年1月11日-1686年11月25日)也作斯泰诺斯台诺史丹诺斯丹诺史坦诺,其名字的丹麦语形式为 Niels Steensen 或 Niels Stensen,音译为尼尔斯·斯滕森,为一位丹麦的解剖学家和地质学家,他早期的地质考察极大的推动了地质学的发展,被认为是地质学地层学之父。
Epicurus 伊壁鸠鲁 伊壁鸠鲁成功地发展了阿瑞斯提普斯享乐主义,并将之与德谟克利特原子论结合起来。他的学说的主要宗旨就是要达到不受干扰的宁静状态。
Andreas Vesalius (安德雷亚斯·维萨里) 16世纪尼德兰解剖学家。他编写的《人体的构造》(拉丁語:De humani corporis fabrica, On the Fabric of the Human Body, 1543)是人体解剖学的权威著作之一。維薩里被认为是近代人体解剖学的创始人。
Joan Baptista van Helmont (扬·巴普蒂斯塔·范·海尔蒙特) 16世纪尼德兰医学家
Chapter 6. building a world of science
chronometer /krə╵nɒmitə(r); krə╵nɑmətɚ/ n instrument that keeps very accurate time╷ used esp for navigating at sea 极准确的记时仪器; (尤指用于航海的)精密记时计; 天文钟. 18世纪才出现,最终解决了航海时的经度确定问题。
Sir Francis Bacon (1561–1626). 弗兰西斯·培根
The Scientific Revolution was a period of both continuity and change, of innovation as well as tradition. The practitioners of early modern natural philosophy came from every part of Europe, every religious confession, every social background, and ranged from provocative innovators to cautious traditionalists. These disparate characters together contributed to the establishment of bodies of knowledge, institutions, and methodologies foundational to today’s global world of science – a world that touches every living human being. We could tell them many things they were desperate to know, and they could perhaps in turn tell us things we are desperate to hear. Their age strikes us as both familiar and alien, simultaneously like our own and strikingly different. The very complexity and exuberance of the early modern period renders it the most fascinating and most important era in the entire history of science.