Sleep: a very short introduction

Publish Date
Sep 10, 2021
Alcmaeo 克羅頓的阿爾克邁翁(又譯阿尔克芒,古希腊语:Ἀλκμαίων;拉丁文:Alcmaeo,約前490年-),古希腊自然哲学家,据传是毕达哥拉斯的学生。阿爾克邁翁生活在意大利南部的希臘殖民地克羅托內古城。阿爾克邁翁的自然哲學著作主要涉及醫學和生物學領域。他強調大腦作為感知器官的重要性。感覺一定是沿著空氣通道從感官進入大腦,儘管他從未看見任何通道,也沒有這樣的通道存在。
Melatonin (褪黑素) is a hormone primarily released by the pineal gland (松果体) at night, and has long been associated with control of the sleep–wake cycle. As a dietary supplement, it is often used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, such as from jet lag or shift work, and is typically taken orally. Evidence of its benefit for this use, however, is not strong. A 2017 review found that sleep onset occurred six minutes faster with use, but found no change in total time asleep The melatonin receptor agonist medication ramelteon may work as well as melatonin supplements,[6] at greater cost but with different adverse effects, for some sleep conditions.
encephalitis /╷enkefə╵laitis; ╷ensefə╵laitis/ n [U] inflammation of the brain 脑炎.
homeostasis 动态静止 homeostatic 自我平衡的 homeostatically 自我平衡地 ... homeostatic control 稳态控制 ; 因自稳调节 ; 因自稳调理 homeostatic system 自体调节系统 ; 恒定系统 ; 渐形成了一个自定体系 ; 稳态系统 homeostatic process 恒定作用 ; 睡眠的恒定机制 narcolepsy 发作性嗜睡病 Endogenous 内源性, 内生的 endogenous pyrogen 内源性热原 ; 内源性致热原 ; 内生致热原 ; [生化] 内热原 endogenous virus [病毒] 内源病毒 ; [病毒] 内生病毒 endogenous infection 内源性感染 ; 内源性传染 ; 而近年来内源性感染 ; 内生性感染 atonia['ætəniə], atony n. (肌肉)张力缺乏;弛缓. In medicine, atony or atonia is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength. tendon: 腱. 把肌肉与骨头联系起来的坚韧组织。腱含有丰富的软胶质,所以富有高度的拉张力。 navel /╵neivl; ╵nevl/ n (in humans) small hollow in themiddle of the belly where the umbilical cord was attachedat birth 肚脐. =>illus at human 见human插图. appendix 附录;阑尾 crepuscular 拂晓的 crepuscular type 曙暮活动型 crepuscular twilight 黄昏的 Crepuscular Ray [天] 曙暮辉 diurnal, nocturnal parasomnia 异睡症(梦游 etc) agonist 激动剂,能与受体(receptor)结合并产生生物效应的物质 hypnic, hypnagogic 催眠的,入睡前的 hypnic jerk 入睡抽动 ; 入睡抽搐 hypnic headache 睡眠头痛 ; 头痛 ; 睡眠性头痛 ; 和睡前头痛 hypnic jerks 入睡抽动 leptin 瘦素, 是一种主要由白色脂肪组织分泌的蛋白类激素.抑制食欲,进食后分泌增多。夜间分泌多 ghrelin 饥饿素。刺激食欲。随着上次进食时间间隔增大而分泌增多。 machismo /mæˈkɪzməʊ, mə-/ N-UNCOUNT You use machismo to refer to men's behaviour or attitudes when they are very conscious and proud of their masculinity. 男子气概 adenosine 腺苷

Behavioral criteria to define sleep

  • A rapidly reversible state of immobility with greatly reduced sensory responsiveness. (distinguish sleep from coma or hibernation).
  • Increased arousal thresholds (requires more noise to be woken) and a decreased responsiveness to external simulation.
  • Species-specific posture and place preference.
  • Behavioral rituals before sleep (eg. circling, yawning, nest-making).
  • Circadian regulation and persistence of a ~24 hour rhythm under constant contitions.
  • A behavior that is homeostatically regulated such that lost sleep is associated with an increased drive for sleep, with subsequent "sleep rebound".

Ideal sleep duration

Adults will sleep 8.5 hours if provided no limit.
Older people prefer to sleep 7.5 hours.